What Is Business Objects in SAP


Business Object Type in SAP contains methods, attributes and events which give a component based view of any Business Process.

For example we have a Purchase Order business process. This process includes various small functionalities. It will have process of changing Purchase orders based upon requirements, functionality to retrieve the details of purchase order etc.

Each of these functionalities is encapsulated inside a method. The method can call the function modules present in R3 system or can have there own code to execute some functionality. So if we consider Purchase Order as a Business Object then it will be identified by key field Purchase Order number.

Each purchase order business object based upon key field purchase order number is different. It’s so because each purchase order is different and will contain different details.

So the methods contain business functionality. Attributes are just like properties of the Business Object.  For example for any purchase order Purchasing Group, Purchasing Organization etc are attributes.

Technically we can say that business object types are just like any template. At runtime we instantiate or create runtime objects for any BO (Business Object) type based upon the key fields we pass.

Two runtime Business Objects of same BO type are different from each other based upon the key fields we pass. So the key field is the differentiating factor for two or more runtime Business Objects of same BO type.

To  Browse  for  BO  open  tcode  SWO2  (Path  ->  Tools  ->ABAP  Workbench->Overview>Business Object Browser).




















You can expand the nodes and can check various Business Objects in BOR. You can double click on the BO node and it will take you to BO display (SWO1).


How To Add Favorites To SAP Main Menu


One of the more productive ways of working within SAP is to use the Favorites procedure On the SAP Main Menu.  Generally a user processes the same T-codes over and over.  SAP has a built-in method of gathering all of these procedures into one area labeled Favorites.  This allows the user to find their T-code easily without looking for it in the menus or memorizing it.

There are different methods on adding favorites to your user ID.  The user can choose which method they feel comfortable using.

Insert Transaction
On the main menu in SAP click on Favorites>Insert Transaction













Enter the T-code and then click on the green check.











Continue with this process to add more T-codes.

For Example, the following T-codes are recommended for Asset Technicians.




















Drag and Drop
If the user finds a T-code in a menu, it can be added by dragging and dropping it under the favorites folder.  On the T-code Highlight the T-code and then  click and hold the left mouse click.  While holding, drag the T-code up to the folder.




















Add Manually
If the user finds a T-code in a menu, it can be added highlighting and clicking on the right mouse click.  Then click ‘Add to favorites’




















Once your favorites have been added, the user will be able to access the T-codes easily.  The favorites can be saved as a raw list like below, or folders can be added to organize the favorites.













How To Define Business Roles [SAP CRM]


The Business role is the central object for controlling the Navigation Bar, the Logical Links and the authorizations for users. The business role determines the different profiles of the UI and what is visible on the UI.


How to define and assign Business Roles.


Go to IMG Path: Customer Relationship Management > Business Roles > Define Business Roles or to transaction CRMC_UI_PROFILE


Pick a suitable role which you want to create a copy of and note the PFCG Role ID








Go to Transaction PFCG and create a Z copy of the standard PFCG role









Once the PFCG Role is created go to IMG Path: Customer Relationship Management > Business Roles > Define Business Roles and create a new business role with the above created PFCG Role.
(It is convenient to copy the standard role to Z name space and change the PFCG role ID). Save the changes.


IMG Path: Customer Relationship Management > Business Roles > Define Organizational Assignment or transaction PPOMA_CRM

  • Users/Business partners are assigned within the Organizational Model to a Position
  • User / Business Partners can be assigned to multiple Positions
  • Each Position can have exactly one Business Role



Double click on the position, menu option Goto > Detail Object > Enhanced ObjectDescription










Go to Business role and click on create













Maintain the Business role










Save the changes and run UI.






How To Create Profit Center & Profit Center Group [KE51 & KCH1]


The Primary objective of  Profit Center is to represent an independent organizational sub unit that operates practically independently in the market, bears responsibility for it’s own costs and revenue, and can be expanded to become an investment center or can be treated as a Company within a company.

The Profit center approach embodies the increasing re-establishment between internal and external accounting, functioning as a connecting link between two accounting concepts. Profit Center Accounting  helps in answering the following questions :

  1. How much is the revenue?
  2. How much is the cost of goods manufactured?
  3. How much is the contribution margin?
  4. How much is the administrative and sales costs?
  5. How much is the operating profit?


ROI , EVA and cash flow analyses are possible at profit center level.

Creation of Profit Center
Enter Transaction code KE51 in the SAP Command Field

















In the next screen , Enter the controlling area in which the Profit Center is to be created










In the next screen, Enter a unique Id for the Profit Center













In the next screen, Enter the Following
  1. Enter the name of the profit center
  2. Enter a short description of the profit center
  3. Enter the person responsible for the profit center
  4. Enter the profit center group for which the profit center belongs to.

















Press ‘Save’ button , for saving the profit center from the SAP Standard Toolbar






The Profit Center is saved in the inactive mode.









Press the ‘Activation’ Button for the activation of the profit center from the Application Toolbar







Check the Status bar for the status of creation of profit center.






Profit Center Group
Enter Transaction Code KCH1 in the SAP Command Field




















In the next screen , Enter the Controlling area in which the profit center group is to be created










In the next screen, Enter a unique Id for the Profit center group to be created













In the next screen, Enter a short description for the Profit center group









Press ‘Save’ button , from the SAP Standard Toolbar to create the profit center group






Check the Status bar for the creation of the profit center group






Profit Center Planning
Planning Process is not a one-time activity, but rather an iterative process, which is usually performed in several steps. Profit center planning is an integral part of your overall company planning. 

The integral character of business planning is particularly apparent within the context of Profit Center Accounting, as the planning data used here is largely created in other applications (such as Cost Center Accounting) and can be supplemented or changed in Profit Center Accounting. 

Profit center planning is part of shortterm business planning and thus encompasses a span of one fiscal year. During the profit center planning process, Individual planning areas are combined into an integrated planning network. 

We can use various plan versions in order to depict various planning

Profit center planning offers us the following methods of planning:
  1. Copying existing plan or actual data to a plan
  2. Posting plan data by period or simultaneously by transaction from other applications
  3. Manual planning of profit centers
  4. Distribution and Assessment of data between profit centers
  5. Various plan reports for comparison of different plan versions

How To Create Internal Order [KO04]


Internal orders describe individual jobs within a controlling area. Orders support action-oriented planning, monitoring, and allocation of costs. You can use internal orders to :

  1. Monitor internal jobs settled to cost centers (overhead orders)
  2. Monitor internal jobs settled to fixed assets (investment orders)
  3. Offsetting postings of accrued costs calculated in CO (accrual orders)
  4. Display the cost controlling parts of Sales and Distribution customer not affect the core business of the company (orders with revenues)

We can use overhead orders for detailed controlling for a particular object or activity. All costs related to this object or activity are assigned to the relevant order. We can use orders as internal cost objects.

For example if the company participate in 2 trade fair to target new clients .

Without Orders, we post costs for the two trade fairs directly to the cost center responsible for supporting these events. As external costs and internal activities have the same cost elements on the same cost center, we cannot easily determine which event created which costs.This means that we cannot make any further analyses for comparison purposes.

A further advantage is the wide variety of planning and budgeting functions provided for orders.

As With Orders, each event receives its own overhead order,  the costs are collected separately. The settlement function allocates the order costs to the cost center responsible for supporting the trade fairs, which provides you with the organizational view of the costs. This enables us to analyze and compare the results of the trade fairs, even after the settlement has been made.

Creating Internal Order
Enter Transaction code KO04 (Order Manager) in the SAP Command Field


In the next screen ,Press ‘Create’ button in the application toolbar to create a new internal order


In the next dialog box, Select the order type to be created


In the next screen, Enter the following data
  1. Enter the Company Code
  2. Enter the Business area
  3. Enter the Object Class of the Order
  4. Enter the Profit Center
  5. Enter the Cost Center responsible for the internal order

















Press ‘Save’ button in the SAP standard toolbar , to create the internal order




Check the status bar for the newly created internal order number









How To Create a Chart Of Accounts Account Group [SPRO]

This tutorial takes you through the steps by steps How To Create a Chart Of Accounts Account Group via Transaction SPRO.


Enter Transaction code SPRO in the command field. In the next screen Select SAP reference IMG









In next screen-”Display IMG”  navigate the following menu path :

SAP Customizing Implementation Guide -> Financial Accounting -> General Ledger Accounting
-> G/L Accounts -> Master Data -> Preparations -> Define Account Group



















In the next screen, select New Entries.





In the next screen, Enter following Information
1. Enter the Chart of Accounts key in which the Account Group is to be created
2. Enter unique Account Group key
3. Enter Description for the Account Group
4. Enter the number range for the G/L account to be created in the Account Group







Select Field Status from the Application menu.





In the next screen, you can change the field status for different sections of the G/L COA Master Data. For example select Account Control.
















Now you can maintain the status of different fields belonging to Account Control Tab between Suppressed   ( Hidden ), Required, Optional and Display modes.










Note : The default status of fields is Optional. After maintaining the field status, press Save.  Enter your Change Request Number. You have successfully created a Chart of Accounts Account Group.











How To Create Chart Of Accounts [SPRO]

The following tutorial takes you through the steps to create How To Chart of Accounts via Transaction SPRO. 

Enter Transaction code SPRO in the command field.
 


In the next screen Select SAP reference IMG.







In next screen-”Display IMG”  navigate the following menu path :

SAP Customizing Implementation Guide -> Financial Accounting -> General Ledger Accounting -> G/L Accounts -> Master Data -> Preparations -> Edit Chart of Accounts List



















In the next screen, select New Entries





In the next screen,Enter Following Data :
  1. Enter a unique Chart of Accounts Code , maximum length is four
  2. Enter a Description for the Chart of Accounts
  3. Enter Language in which the Chart of Accounts is created. All accounts have a description in this language.Master Data can only be displayed or maintained in this language
  4. Enter the maximum length for G/L Accounts number, it could be maximum to ten digits if number is short then it will prefix zero before it to make it to the  maximum length
  5. Enter the type of integration between G/L accounts and cost elements
  6. Enter Chart of Accounts which is used in the corporate group

















After you complete entering this information Press Save. In the next screen, Enter your Change Request number. You have successfully created a new Chart of Accounts. 









How To Create Company Code & Assign To Company [SPRO]

Step by step How To Create a Company Code and Assign to a Company via Transaction SPRO. This is a 2 Step Process :

  1. Define Company Code
  2. Assign Company to Company Code
Define Company Code

Enter Transaction code SPRO in the command field. In the next screen Select SAP reference IMG











In next screen Display IMG follow the menu path :

SAP Customizing Implementation Guide -> Enterprise Structure ->Definition->Financial Accounting->Edit, Copy, Delete, Check Company Code














In the next screen, select activity –  Edit Company Code Data.
















In the Change View Company code screen select New Entries





In the Next Screen Enter the Following Details
  1. Enter your Unique Company Code Number
  2. Enter Company Name
  3. In the Additional Data section Enter City
  4. Enter Country for the Company
  5. Enter Local Currency
  6. Enter Default Language















Click Address Details button on same screen




Enter Address Details for the Company this will appear in print forms
1. In the Name Section Enter Title and Company Name
2. In the Search Term section Enter Search term 1 and 2
3. In the Street Address section enter street, postal code, city, country
4. In the P O Box Address  section Enter PO Box and Postal Code
5. In Communication Section Enter appropriate details





















After Completing this information Press Save and Enter your Change Request number.







Assign Company Code to Company

In the SAP Reference IMG Select the Menu path :

SAP Customizing Implementation Guide ->Enterprise Structure->Assignment->Financial Accounting->Assign Company Code to Company














In the Next Screen Enter the unique Company ID against the Company Code you want to assign to this Company.






Press Save and Enter the Customizing request Number. You have assigned the desired Company code to the Company.